Python Interview Questions

Top 100+ Python Interview Questions You Must Know in 2023

Python is a high-level, versatile, and interpreted programming language popular for its simplicity and readability. This language was developed by Guido van Rossum and was first introduced on February 20, 1991. Python’s numerous libraries and frameworks make it popular for web development, data analysis, machine learning, and many other applications. Additionally, according to a survey from GitHub, the global demand for Python developers has increased by 41% in recent years. It emerged as the most popular programming language as per the Popularity of Programming Language Index (PYPL), and its usage on the platform multiplied by 22.5 % in 2022. Furthermore, estimating the global market worth of Python is challenging due to its open-source nature. However, the data analytics sector places significant importance on the language and projects that its market worth will exceed $655 billion by 2029.

Therefore, all these factors indicate how important it is for aspiring Python developers to be well-versed in the common Python interview questions while applying for jobs. In recent years, interviews for Python developers have grown highly competitive, demanding competence in libraries, frameworks, and problem-solving skills amidst the language’s increasing demand. In such a scenario, our meticulous collection of 100+ Advanced Python Interview Questions and Answers acts as a compass, preparing you well for your upcoming job interviews in this dynamic field. These Python interview questions for beginners and professionals cover a wide range of topics, from basic to advanced concepts. The primary objective of this set of questions is to prepare aspirants for their upcoming interviews as Python developers. Hence, whether you are an experienced developer or a beginner in the world of programming, this complete set of Python Interview Questions for Experienced as well as beginners empowers you to manage your interviews efficiently. However, it must be understood well that these Python Interview Questions for Freshers or professionals just serve as a general guide to the kinds of questions that might be asked during interviews.

Thus, familiarizing yourself with the basic Python Interview Questions helps you get hired for the following positions:

Thus, familiarizing yourself with the basic Python Interview Questions helps you get hired for the following positions:

  • Python Developer
  • Research Analyst
  • Data Analyst
  • Machine Learning Engineer
  • Software Engineer
  • Data Scientist

So what are you waiting for? Join us on this journey to not only learn the commonly asked Python Interview Questions for Intermediate, Beginners, or Advanced but also to develop a thorough understanding of the language’s potential in the ever-evolving tech industry.

1. What is Python, and what are its key features?

Python is a high-level, interpreted programming language known for its simplicity and readability. Key features include dynamic typing, automatic memory management, a vast standard library, and the use of indentation for code blocks.

2. How do you comment on Python code?

In Python, you can comment using the “#” symbol. Anything after “#” on the same line is considered a comment.

3. What are the differences between lists and tuples in Python?

Lists are mutable (can be modified), while tuples are immutable (cannot be modified). Lists use square brackets [], and tuples use parentheses ().

4. Explain the difference between “deep copy” and “shallow copy” in Python.

A shallow copy creates a new object, but it references the same elements as the original. A deep copy creates a completely independent copy of the original object with all its elements.

5. How do you handle exceptions in Python?

In Python, you use a try-except block to handle exceptions. The code inside the try block is executed, and if an exception occurs, the code inside the except block is executed.

6. What is the purpose of the “if __name__ == __’main__’:” statement in Python scripts?

This statement allows you to check if the Python script is being run as the main program or if it’s being imported as a module. It is commonly used to separate the script’s executable code from reusable functions.

7. Explain the difference between Python 2 and Python 3.

Python 3 introduced several backward-incompatible changes and enhancements over Python 2, such as improved Unicode support, print function, type annotations, and more. Python 2 is no longer supported and developers are encouraged to use Python 3.

8. How do you open and read a file in Python?

You can open and read a file using the open() function and then use the read() method to read the file’s contents.

9. What are decorators in Python?

Decorators are functions that modify the behavior of other functions. They allow you to extend the functionality of functions without changing their code.

10. Explain list comprehensions in Python.

List comprehensions provide a concise way to create lists in Python. They allow you to construct a new list by applying an expression to each item in an existing iterable.

11. How do you handle Python’s memory management?

Python uses automatic memory management through garbage collection. The interpreter automatically deallocates memory for objects that are no longer referenced.

12. What are lambda functions in Python?

Lambda functions, also known as anonymous functions, are small, single-line functions defined using the lambda keyword. They are often used for short, throwaway functions.

13. Explain the use of virtual environments in Python

Virtual environments allow you to create isolated Python environments with specific packages and dependencies. They help avoid conflicts between different projects’ dependencies.

14. How do you handle file I/O errors in Python?

File I/O errors can be handled using the try, except, and finally blocks. You can catch specific exceptions like FileNotFoundError or handle a general IOError.

15. Explain the use of the super() in Python classes

super() is used to call a method from a parent class in a subclass. It allows you to access and invoke methods or attributes defined in the parent class.

16. What is a generator in Python?

A generator is a special type of iterator that produces values on-the-fly using the yield keyword. It saves memory as it doesn’t generate all values at once.

17. How do you handle multiple exceptions in Python?

You can handle multiple exceptions by specifying them in a tuple within a single except block, or use separate except blocks for each exception.

18. Explain the use of the map() function in Python.

The map() function applies a given function to all items in an iterable and returns an iterator with the results.

19. What is the purpose of the __init__() method in Python classes?

The __init__() method is a constructor that gets called automatically when an object is created. It initializes the object’s attributes and performs any setup required.

20. How do you handle Python exceptions with custom messages?

To handle exceptions with custom messages, you can raise an exception with the raise statement and pass an instance of the desired exception class with the custom message.

21. What are Python decorators used for? Provide an example of a practical use case for decorators.

Decorators are used to modify or extend the behavior of functions or methods. A practical use case for decorators is adding authentication or logging to specific functions to ensure security and track function usage.

22. Explain the difference between append() and extend() methods for lists in Python.

append() adds an element to the end of a list, while extend() appends all elements of an iterable to the list.

23. How do you remove duplicate elements from a list in Python?

You can remove duplicates from a list by converting it to a set and then back to a list (assuming order doesn’t matter) or by using a loop to construct a new list with unique elements.

24. What are docstrings in Python, and how do you write them?

Docstrings are strings used to provide documentation for Python functions, modules, or classes. They are written as the first statement inside a function, module, or class, enclosed in triple quotes.

25. How can you reverse a string in Python?

You can reverse a string using slicing or the reversed() function. For example, my_string[::-1] or ”.join(reversed(my_string)).

26. Explain the use of the pass statement in Python.

The pass statement is a no-op (no operation) that is used as a placeholder for code that is yet to be implemented. It allows the interpreter to proceed without raising an error.

27. How can you create a copy of a list without modifying the original list?

You can create a copy of a list using the slicing technique, the list() constructor, or the copy() method of lists.

28. What are the built-in data types in Python?

Python has several built-in data types, including integers, floats, complex, bool, NoneType, strings, lists, tuples, dictionaries, sets, frozenset and more.

29. How do you find the index of an element in a list in Python?

You can use the index() method of lists, which returns the index of the first occurrence of the specified element.

30. Explain the difference between the deepcopy() and copy() functions in Python’s copy module.

The copy() function creates a shallow copy of an object, while deepcopy() creates a completely independent copy, recursively copying nested objects as well.

31. How can you handle multilevel inheritance in Python classes?

In Python, multilevel inheritance is when a class inherits from another class, which in turn inherits from another class. You can use the super() function to call methods from parent classes in multilevel inheritance.

32. What is a Python module, and how do you import it into your script?

A module is a Python file containing definitions and statements. To import a module, you use the import keyword followed by the module name.

33. How do you remove an item from a list in Python?

You can use the remove() method to remove the first occurrence of a specific element from a list, or use the del statement to remove an element by its index.

34. What are Python iterators and iterables?

Iterables are objects that can be iterated over, while iterators are objects that allow iteration over an iterable using the iter() and next() functions.

35. How can you combine two or more dictionaries in Python?

You can use the update() method to merge one dictionary into another.

36. Explain the difference between a set and a frozenset in Python.

A set is a mutable collection of unique elements, while a frozenset is an immutable version of a set. Once created, the elements in a frozenset cannot be changed.

37. How do you handle user input in Python, especially when expecting numerical values?

You can use the input() function to get user input as a string and then convert it to the desired data type using int() or float() functions for numerical input.

38. How can you find the maximum and minimum values in a list or an iterable in Python?

You can use the max() and min() functions to find the maximum and minimum values in a list or iterable, respectively.

39. Write a Python function to check if a given string is a palindrome.

def is_palindrome(s):
return s == s[::-1]

40. Implement a Python function to find all prime numbers up to a given number N.

def is_prime(num):
if num < 2:
return False
for i in range(2, int(num**0.5) + 1):
if num % i == 0:
return False
return True

def find_primes_up_to_N(N):
primes = [num for num in range(2, N+1) if is_prime(num)]
return primes

41. Write a Python function to remove duplicates from a list while preserving the order of elements.

def remove_duplicates(input_list):
unique_list = []
for item in input_list:
if item not in unique_list:
return unique_list

42. Create a Python generator function to generate the Fibonacci sequence up to a given number N.

def fibonacci_generator(N):
a, b = 0, 1
while a <= N:
yield a
a, b = b, a + b

43. Write a Python function to find the intersection of two lists.

def find_intersection(list1, list2):
return list(set(list1) & set(list2))

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